Multi-level governance beyond the European Union
The point of departure for multi-level governance was Europe, but recent books and articles have dealt with the dispersion of authority away from central states in Latin America, Asia, and North America. Decentralization has been at least as marked in Latin America as in Europe over the past two decades, and several Asian countries have decentralized in the past decade.
Dispersion of authority above the national state is most evident in the EU, but it is not sui generis. A recent survey counts 32 regional IGOs pooling authority over quite wide areas of policy and which cover all but a handful of states in the world today. The number of governmental and non-governmental international organizations has increased markedly over the past two decades, as has their scope, range and intrusiveness. Crossborder interdependence – from migration to climate change to terrorism – has stimulated regional organization in many parts of the world